The Anti-Federalist Papers

Unlike the Federalist, the 85 articles written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 United States Constitution were not a part of an organized program. Rather, the essays–– written under many pseudonyms and often published first in states other than New York -- represented diverse elements of the opposition and focused on a variety of objections to the new Constitution. In New York, a letter written by "Cato" appeared in the New-York Journal within days of submission of the new constitution to the states, led to the Federalists publishing the "Publius" letters. "Cato", thought to have been New York Governor George Clinton, wrote a further six letters. The sixteen "Brutus" letters, addressed to the Citizens of the State of New York and published in the New-York Journal and the Weekly Register, closely paralleled the "Publius" newspaper articles and Judge Robert Yates, is the presumed author. Melancton Smith's speeches are considered part of the Anti-Federalist Papers and he may have been the author of the "Federal Farmer" articles.

The Founders' Constitution is an anthology of political and legal writings relating to Federal Constitution. It includes letters, records of debates, and case law. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/

The Founders Constitution contains the following writings from the Anti-Federalist Papers:
Brutus, no. 1, 18 Oct. 1787
Brutus, no. 3, 15 Nov. 1787
Brutus, no. 4, 29 Nov. 1787
Brutus, no. 5, 13 Dec. 1787
Brutus, no. 6, 27 Dec. 1787
Brutus, no. 7, 3 Jan. 1788
Brutus, no. 8, 10 Jan. 1788
Brutus, no. 9, 17 Jan. 1788
Brutus, no. 10, 24 Jan. 1788
Brutus, no. 11, 31 Jan. 1788
Brutus, no. 12, 7 Feb. 1788
Brutus, no. 13, 21 Feb. 1788
Brutus, no. 14, 28 Feb- 6 Mar. 1788
Brutus, no. 15, 20 Mar. 1788
Brutus, no. 16, 10 Apr. 1788

Cato, no. 1, 27 Sept. 1787
Cato, no. 2, 10 Dec. 1787
Cato, no. 3, Fall 1787
Cato, no. 4, 8 Nov. 1787
Cato, no. 5, Fall 1787

Melancton Smith, New York Ratifying Convention 20--21 June 1788
Melancton Smith, New York Ratifying Convention 21 June 1788
Melancton Smith, Proposed Amendment, New York Ratifying Convention 2 July 1788
Melancton Smith's Notes, 26 Sept.]



RETURN TO LEGAL HISTORY: 1777-1846



The Historical Society of the Courts of the State of New York        140 Grand Street, Suite 701 White Plains, N.Y. 10601        914.824.5717